Monday, April 03, 2006

PhD Theses from JIPTUNAIR: PEREBUTAN HAK ATAS TANAH

PhD Theses from JIPTUNAIR / 2006-03-14 12:47:35

PEREBUTAN HAK ATAS TANAH : Studi Konflik antara Petani, TNI AU, dan Perhutani Atas Tanah Mbaon di Desa Senggreng Kecamatan Sumberpucung Kabupaten Malang

CONFLICT OVER THE RIGHTS OF LAND: Study of Conflict between Peasant, Indonesian Air Force, and Indonesian Forestry Enterprise regarding Mbaon Land in Senggreng Village, Sumberpucung Subdistrict, Malang District
By: Samuji
Email: library@lib.unair.ac.id; library@unair.ac.id
Post Graduate Airlangga University
Created: 2006-03-14

Keywords: land conflict, peasant. Indonesian Air Force, Indonesian Forestry Enterprise, historical Qualitative Peasant organization, peasant ideology; Konflik pertanahan, petani, TNI AU, Perhutani, kualitatif historis, organisasi petani, ideologi petani
Subject: LAND TUNER – LAW AND LEGISLATION
Call Number: KKB KK-2 Dis S 04/05 Sam p

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1) memahami latar historis konflik tanah Mbaon yang melibatkan petani, TNI AU, dan Perhutani, (2) memaknai akar konflik pertanahan tersebut, (3) memahami peran organisasi dalam mobilisasi gerakan petani, dan (4) memaknai ideologi yang digunakan petani dalam melakukan gerakan. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu kualitatif historis. Data digali dengan menggunakan teknik pengamatan, wawancara, life history, dan dokumentasi. Data dianalisis dengan prosedur analisis data yang dikembangkan Miles dan Huberman (1994 ).

Kesimpulan penelitian ini: (1) latar historis konflik tanah Mbaon telah terjadi sejak tahun 1927. Pada waktu itu tanah Mbaon oleh Belanda dikategori sebagai hutan jati. Tahun 1950 TNI AU mengklaim tanah Mbaon sebagai asetnya. Tahun 1957-1965 hak garap petani ditarik kepala desa bersama AURI. Tahun 1965 petani diusir dari tanah Mbaon dan dicap sebagai anggota BTI. Tahun 1965-2000 mayoritas petani miskin tidak boleh menggarap tanah Mbaon. Hak garap hanya dikuasai orang kaya dan "anthek" TNI AU. Latar belakang historis itulah yang menyebabkan terjadinya konflik antara petani, TNI AU, dan Perhutani. (2) Akar konflik terjadi, selain karena adanya perbedaan pemahaman terhadap dasar hukum yang digunakan, juga karena tingginya nilai tanah bagi masing-masing pihak, baik nilai ekonomi, maupun nilai politik. (3) Protes yang dilakukan petani Desa Senggreng tidak terlepas dari peran tokoh-tokoh gerakan dalam mengorganisasi gerakan. Melalui mereka nilai-nilai, ide-ide, dan pengaruh ditularkan, hingga keberanian petani melakukan perlawanan terbentuk. (4) ideologi yang dikembangkan oleh petani dalam gerakan perlawanan lebih condong sebagai "ideologi antiektorsi-radikal" karena petani mempunyai tekad untuk melawan berbagai pihak luar yang ingin merampas tanah mereka melalui gerakan radikal.

Implikasi teori penelitian ini: Pertama, memperkuat teori Paige (1975), bahwa konflik antara kelompok kaum petani bukan penggarap yang sumber penghasilannya dari tanah dengan kelompok petani penggarap yang sumber penghasilannya juga dari tanah melahirkan pemberontakan agraria (agrarian revolt). Kedua, konflik tanah Mbaon bersumber pada tiga aspek (1) aspek struktur sosial, (2) infrastruktur material, (3) aspek superstruktur ideologi. Bukan hanya dua aspek pertama dan kedua sebagaimana Marx, Dahrendorf, Collins, dan Fisher. Ideologi petani Desa Senggreng lebih condong sebagai "ideologi antiektorsi-radikal, bukan ideologi antiekstorsi (Suhartono, 1993), atau ideologi radikal (Landsberger dan Alexandrov, 1984). Juga bukan ideologi milleniarisme (Sartono Kartodirdjo, 1984), tetapi merupakan eklektasi dari ketiganya.

Translation:
The purposes of this research are to (1 ) understand the historical background of conflict of Mbaon land involving the peasant, Indonesian Air Force (TNI AU), and Indonesian Forestry Enterprise (Perhutani), (2) explain causes of the land conflict, (3) find out organization's role in mobilizing the peasant movement, and (4) elucidate ideology that the peasants use in the movement. The data are collected through observation, interview, life history and documentation. The data are analyzed using the method of Miles and Huberman (1994).

Based on the research, it concludes that: (1) the historical background of the Mbaon conflict had occurred since 1927. At the time, the Dutch colonial government identified the Mbaon land as teak forest. In 1950, the Indonesian Air Force claimed the land as its asset. In 1957-1965, the peasants' right of cultivating the land was revoked by the village chief and Indonesian Air Force. In 1965, the peasants were expelled from the Mbaon land and labeled as members of BTI. In 1965-2000, majority of the poor peasants were not allowed to cultivation the land. The right of cultivation was only executed by the have and henchmen of Indonesian Air Force. It was the historical background which generated the conflict between the peasants, Indonesian Air Force, and Indonesian Forestry Enterprise. (2) Besides, the causes of the conflict there was a dissent regarding legal grounds they used, the land had very high value for parties, both in economic and political perspective. (3) Protests that the peasants do in Senggreng village is inseparable from the leaders' role in mobilizing the peasants movement. The leaders transmitted values, ideas and influence which encouraged the peasants to make resistance against the powerful party. (4) Ideology that they have developed is “radical ant extortion ideology" since the peasants are greatly committed of launching robust resistance against external parties who wanted to seize their land through radical movement.

This theory has several implications. First, the theory provides a support to Paige's theory (1975) that the conflict between "the peasants without land" groups whose livelihood derives from the land and "the peasant with land" groups whose livelihood also comes from the land produce agricultural revolt. Second, the Mbaon land conflict stems from three aspects: (1) social structure, (2) material infrastructure and (3) ideological superstructure, rather than two aspects as stated by Marx, Dahrendorf, Collins and Fisher. Ideology that they use in the movement "radical ant extortion ideology" rather than antiextortion ideology (Suhartono, 1993) or radical ideology (Landsberger and Alexandrov, 1984), or mil1eniarism ideology (Sartono Kartodirdjo, 1984), but it is a combination of the three.

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Copyright © 2005 by Airlangga University Library, Surabaya

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