Peace Building Institute (PBI) is an institution founded on May !4, 2003 initiated by a congregation of activist and intellectuals who share a common interest in peace buildings, law & justice and the promotion of non-violence culture. The foundation of this institution is Bakubae movement ? Jakarta.
In the last 3,5 years, BakuBae has taken the initiative in campaigning against violence, lobbying the government, military & police forces. BakuBae has also conducted a series of workshops for the local community in its effort to end violence in Maluku i.e.:for the actors of conflict, refugees (IDPs: Internally Displace People) and victims of conflict, women and children, youth, students, lawyers, journalist, intellectuals, religious leaders and ?raja-raja?.
At the national level, Bakubae has proactively carried out the peace building campaigns and advocacy activities, together with YLBHI, Kontras?S, YAPPIKA, Yayasan Kemala, AJI, LBH Jakarta, LBH Surabaya and LBH Ujung Pandang.
At the regional level, BakuBae ? Jakarta has a joint operation with P4K Tadulako University to conduct peace-building activities in Poso. In Sampit, BakuBae has supported RIDEP activities in the conflict resolution programs. In Aceh, BakuBae has also supported the coalition between NGO HAM and Task Force to promote peace-building activities in Aceh. BakuBae is working together with LBH Papua and FOKER LSM in Papua region to implement conflict prevention activities.
At the international level BakuBae ? Jakarta, in cooperation with International Dialog Forum or Netherlands appeared before the European Parliament in Belgium and The Netherlands in the year of 2001 as part of its campaign to end violence in Maluku.
Vision and Mission
Vision of the Peace Building Institute is establishing a solid order of society in which plurality is tolerated and honored; a society that has the ability to manage its social conflict and resolve differences in amicable ways.
To achieve this vision, Peace Building Institute is committed to take the following steps:
* To promote value of pluralism, tolerance, and human rights principles as way of life and the concept of Indonesian nationalism which endorsing the non-violence principles and developing various approaches to avoid the use of force in resolving social conflicts.
* To strengthen the civil society capacities in conflict resolution processes through local based resources and non-violence approach.
To actively participate in resolving various social conflicts throughout the regions, actively involved in exchanging ideas and sharing experiences on conflict resolution processes with other domestic and international organizations and to develop PBI management capacity.
Programmes and Activities
The activities of Peace Building Institute are based on the value of justice, democracy, equality, personal and social improvement. At the same time, Peace Building Institute is aiming for an optimum role in promoting resolution in various social conflicts and honoring human rights in a justice and democratic society.
In executing its function, Peace Building Insitute will focus its activities in the following six areas of developments:
* To promote law abiding society.
* Facilitator and conflict resolution training.
* To facilitate various social conflict and natural resource conflict resolution in Indonesia.
* Advocacy campaigns at the local, national and international level. Community Development
* Research an Development for Conflict prevention.
Peace Building Institute will conduct its activities in all Indonesia regions, but its focus will be on the following area:
Papua, Mollucas, North Mollucas, Central Sulawesi (Poso), South Sulawesi, Central Kalimantan (Sampit), East Kalimantan, Riau Islands, Aceh, Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB), and Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT).
Organization and Personnels
Peace Building Institute organizing consist of the Board of Facilitators, Board of Advisors and Executives, with composition as follow:
Board of Facilitators, consisting of five members, is responsible to facilitate the institution in achieving its vision and mission and to maintain its priorities:
Ichsan Malik : Executive Director
Max Patitinaja : Vice-Director
Boedhi Widjarjo : Secretary
Board of Advisors, obliged to provide expert propositions and judgement:
Prof. DR. Saleh Putuhena : Chairman
Prof. DR. Teuku Yakob : Secretary
Prof. DR. R.Z. Leirisa : Member
Prof. DR. Frans Limahelu : Member
Bambang Widjoyanto, SH, LLM : Member
Mahfud Nukuhehe : Member
Theresa Maitimu : Member
Executives are responsible in executing programmes of the institution, to held account for all impact of their programmes in front of the Member Assembly. Executive consist of:
Coordinator for ?Negeri? and Traditional Community Empowerment Programme
Coordinator for Law Enforcement and Justice Programme
Coordinator for Conflict Early Warning System
Lucia ratih Kusumadewi (team leader)
Mashudi Noorsalim (analyst)
Coordinator for Information ? Documentation and Research Programme
Josephine Rosa Marieta
1. CIVILIAN PEACE KEEPING FACILITATOR TRAINING
Indonesia, a country blessed with social diversity also bears conflict potentials. In the recent years, it has been shown that violent conflicts widespread throughout the country, namely in Aceh, Papua, West and Central Kalimantan, Mollucas and Central Sulawesi. From October 2001 to September 2001, it was recorded that there were about 18,910 human casualties because of the conflict.
Meanwhile, some efforts to handle the conflict in various provinces in Indonesia, such as in Molluccas, Papua, Central Kalimantan and Central Sulawesi, have yet to show optimal results. There are two important and crucial aspects needed to be developed, both for the society or the government in order to prevent and handle the conflict.
First, the capacity aspects in handling the conflict, which include appropriate skills and in-depth knowledge for conflict settlement and conflict prevention as well.
Second, public and government’s critical awareness to prevent and resolve the conflict.
In fact, those two aspects have not been understood well by the civil society or the government. Though, theoretically and empirically those are important requirements to prevent and settle/handle the conflict in order to achieve the peace.
The existence of peace-building facilitators, who have in-depth knowledge, understanding and action capability to do peace building work in the public, is assumed as one of important keys regarding to problem solving in the matter of conflict prevention or settlement.
The Peace Building Institute, experienced in conflict resolution in Mollucas, Poso, Papua and several areas, has conveyed training for conflict facilitators based on community conflict enlightment and settlement since 2004.
WHAT ARE THE OBJECTIVES?
1. To prepare qualified or skilled individuals as peace keeping facilitators in preventing and handling conflict using effective and holistic approaches.
2. To facilitate the establishment of various working groups which are capable to handle conflicts in their areas using non-violence approach.
3. To empower civil society organization in preventing and managing conflict.
HOW IS THE PROCESS?
The training which designed for two months course, employs both class and field/ exercise methods. This method will encourage participants in reflecting and implementing the teaching materials to the actual conditions in the participant’s areas of origin.
WHAT ARE THE MODULES
An expert team will design the whole materials for the training. The topics of training are divided into several main sub topics:
1. Non Violent and Human Right Values
2. Root of Conflict Analysis
3. Early Warning System
4. Psychological Vulnerability and Capacities Building
5. Community Organizing
6. Advocating and Peace Campaign
7. Networking For Peace
WHO WILL BE IN CHARGE?
The training is facilitated by individuals whom posses expertise in facilitating conflict resolution process in several conflict ridden areas in Indonesia. Those are Ichsan Malik, Boedhi Wijardjo (MSc. in Social Psychology, University of Indonesia), and Dadang Trisasongko. The training will also be given by prominent academicians such as Prof. Dr. Fuad Hassan (experienced psychologist and ex minister of education), and Prof. Dr. Franz Magnis Suseno, (prominent philosopher).
2. CONFLICT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM
Violence emerged in various regions in Indonesia on the eve of the collapse of the New Order regime in the late 1990s. Those violent conflicts have caused hundred thousands people died and millions became internally displaced. The material loss is still incalculable until recently.
Conflict frequency has inclined after 1998 both quantitatively and quantitatively. Several major conflicts were broke out in Molucca, North Sulawesi, West Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, Papua and Aceh. Some cases were relatively ‘minor’ in the sense of both casualties and time or scale of conflicts, such as conflicts that occurred in Jakarta, Medan, Makassar, at the northern coastal of Java island, Bali, West and East Nusa Tenggara. It often covers wide range of dimensions namely class, ethnicity, religion, and social-political issues.
Besides the widespread of violence which caused human and material loss, the conditions above were worsen by the inability of the state in anticipating and preventing new violence conflicts. As an example, political conflict at the national level has contributed to the dispute at the local level. State security apparatuses have failed to protect the society and further it became disfunctioned; while in some places, security forces were involved in violent conflicts. In Ambon for instance, both the military and police forces were confronted one another in armed conflicts.
Given the circumstance above, civil society has to take a more participatory role to stop the cycle of violence. One among many efforts to prevent violent conflict is the Conflict Early Warning System (CEWS). However, different from the Early Warning System that developed by state which relied on the role of intelligence units; CEWS involves the societal network which actively prevent and respond to violent conflicts.
Why CEWS is needed?
Advanced technology and science has made it possible to predict and to look at scenario of future conflict. Experiences from other countries have shown that conflict is possible to predict before it broke out. In Indonesia, analysts have warned on the possibilities of violent conflict breakouts before it finally occurred. However, those predictions have not been integrated into an early warning system.
Seeing from this point of view, a comprehensive early warning system towards communal conflicts, which is based on activities mentioned above, is needed.
What Are the Objectives of CEWS?
In general, CEWS is aimed at early prevention of violent communal conflict. More particularly, CEWS is aimed at:
1. Identifying root causes of conflict in a specific area.
2. Assessing and predicting some scenario or possibilities of future conflict.
3. Providing a balanced analysis, which is based on different interactions between various factors and indicators of peace and conflict?
4. As a reference of peace building activity in Indonesia.
What is Conflict Early Warning System (CEWS)?
Conflict Early Warning System (CEWS) is an early prevention system of the emerging communal violent conflict. The activity is focused upon data gathering and analysis, formulation of recommendation, which including assessment and information sharing, and conducted both through qualitative and quantitative methods. CEWS is a risk assessment, which based on analysis of the rapidly changed social situation.
The data gathering process involves all parties in the society and the government. CEWS, different from such system that developed by the police force; treat the society as subject whom prevents the violent conflicts at the earliest moments.
In this framework, the CEWS that establishes in Indonesia is derived and developed based on experiences from other countries, included the Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) that develops by FAO and Office for Research and the Collection Information (ORCI). CEWS Indonesia is also learned from the implementation of Early Warning System from the Organization of American States (OAS), Inter-Governmental Authority for Drought and Development and Organization of African Unity in Africa, etc.
However, CEWS Indonesia has its characteristic which differ itself from Early Warning System in other countries. Based on the heterogeneity of its society, CEWS Indonesia is conducted by specific approaches, which made it effective.
In general, CEWS is useful to: (1) identify the root causes of conflict; (2) predict the broke out of violent conflicts; (3) prevent violent conflicts.
Who Involves in CEWS?
National and local government whom functioned as decision makers, international, national and local peace builder institute, and the society in general.
What are the main Activities of CEWS?
There are four core activities of CEWS:
Research is a data gathering activity, which is based on qualitative and quantitave methodologies. Research is designed to know a specific social condition in an area, which further enables to look at projection and scenario of future conflicts.
Advocacy is an activity in conflict prevention through campaign, lobbying, and critical education. This activity is based on the research and analysis results specifically on the projection of violent conflicts.
Networking is another focus of CEWS and is a new approach in solving conflict in Indonesia. The network itself is established based on the active participation of various parties in the society; i.e. government agents and/ or individuals, societal groups or community organizations, and experts or academics. The main target of this approach is the individual or a group with has a possibility to conduct violence, since violence can be stop only by the perpetrator itself.
4. GIS- database
GIS is a database-grouping model, which used the geographic information system. A data gathering method that is based on network and is useful to detect social symptoms earlier.
5. Coordination of EWS Network in Indonesia
The network coordination is designed in order to make conflict prevention effective and efficient. It involves all stakeholders as participants whom able to prevent conflict at both the local and national level.
Who coordinates CEWS Network in Indonesia?
At the national level, the Institute Titian Perdamaian (ITP) is a non-government institute, which coordinates all of CEWS activities in Indonesia. ITP is a peace builder institute, which has trained and experienced individuals on research, advocacy, and networking of peace building activities both in Indonesia and abroad.
At the local level, activities of CEWS on the first year are focused in Aceh, West Kalimantan and Molucca. In Aceh, CEWS activities will be coordinated by La Kaspia and its network; while in West Kalimantan, CEWS activities is coordinated by GEMAWAN institute and its network as the founders which establish NEWS Kalimantan Barat; and in Molucca, the LBH Baku Bae and its network coordinates CEWS.
Secretariat of CEWS
1. Institute Titian Perdamaian (ITP)
Jalan Danau Mahalona, D I/35, Bendungan Hilir, Jakarta Pusat, 10210 INDONESIA
Tel: +6221 - 57313 93
Facs: +6221 - 57313 93
Contact: Lucia Ratih; Mashudi Noorsalim; Jauhari Effendy (+628151600292)
2. Networking Early Warning System (NEWS)
Jalan Surya No. 37, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat
Tel: +62561 – 740064
Facs: +62561 – 744672
Contact: Aam (+6281345526843); Muhammad Isa (+6281345553183)
3. EWS Aceh,
Jalan T. Hasan Dek No. 130
Complex H.Budiman, Jembo Tape, Banda Aceh
Contact: De Ronnie (+6281513049149)
4. EWS Ambon
Jalan DT. Latumeten No.5A, Ambon, Maluku
Tel: +62911 – 312771
Contact: Justus; Hilda